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What you should know about BGP-4 Protocol

Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 (BGP-4), documented in RFC 1771, is the current exterior routing protocol used for the global Internet. BGP is essentially a distance-vector algorithm, but with several added twists. Other BGP-related documents are RFC 1772 (BGP Application), RFC 1773 (BGP Experience), RFC 1774 (BGP Protocol Analysis), and RFC 1657 (BGP MIB).

bgp labeled unicast

BGP Labeled Unicast (BGP-LU)

This blog post discusses BGP Labeled Unicast (BGP-LU) which is used in multi-regional networks to carry the label information. While the RFC3107 “Carrying Label...


BGP/MPLS Layer 3 VPNs Practical Configuration

In our previous blog article we’ve discussed the benefits and the fundamental principles of BGP/MPLS L3 VPNs. We have covered the definition of the...


BGP / MPLS Layer 3 VPNs

What is VPN? Virtual Private Networks (VPN) are designed to provide users with the private networks capabilities over a shared infrastructure. They connect remote sites...

bgp attributes

Lesser-known BGP path attributes

The past few weeks we've discussed the main BGP path attributes: the next hop, the AS path, the MED. We also covered the community...

MED Multi Exit Discriminator

The BGP Multi Exit Discriminator (MED) attribute and tie-breaking

When BGP needs to choose which route to reach a certain destination is best, it first looks at the local preference and AS path...

as path

Understanding the AS path and AS path prepending

In earlier articles, we discussed the next hop and local preference attributes. Today we'll be looking at the AS_PATH attribute as well as the...

ipv4 ipv6

IPv4 BGP vs IPv6 BGP

BGP is older than IPv6. Even BGP-4, the version we still use today, predates IPv6: the first BGP-4 RFC (RFC 1654) was published in...